ADYGHE REPUBLIC

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Adyghe Republic
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INVITATION

I know, Adyghea is so tiny.
On the mottled map, near the Caucasus Mountains,
The whole of it fits in under the tip of a pointer-
The land which was the whole world for me.

Oh, small ancient land!..
The sun can warm it with a single ray-
The white sleepy houses,
And dark blue tops, and fields,
A dashing Dzhigit who spurred his horse.

Ask History about us.
She remembers the names of dashing Circassians,
She will tell how once in olden times
Chestnut horses galloped and steel jingled.

Ask the sun and the dawn.
But you'd better see yourself-
Better to see once than hear a hundred times.
Just come and be a welcome guest.

ISKHAK MASHBASH, People's Writer of the Republic of Adygea and the Kabardin-Balkar Republic

One of the modern parts of Adygea's territory - Adyghe Republic

The Adyghe Republic (with an area of 7790 sq km) is located in the central part of the North-West Caucasus, in the lowlands of the Kuban, Laba and Belaya Rivers valleys.

The northen part of the Adyghe Republic contains lowlands where elevations are about 20 to 40 meters. The central part of the republic is dominated by rugged mountain ranges, composed of clay, sandstone and marls. The northen macroslope of the Greater Caucasus forming the republic's southern boundry is dominated by peaks with hidhts of over 3000 m.

The summits of the Shepsi, Oshten, Fisht, Chugush and Pseashkho mountains, ranging from 2,000 to 3,255 meters high, stretch from south to east in the Adyghe Republic's mountainous region. The Kuban, a navigable river, is one of the largest in the Caucasus. The Belaya, Laba, Pshish, Psekups, Kisha, Dakh, Sakhrai, Khodz, Ears and many other rivers jet forth from the glaciers and eternal snow on turbulent and wayward shoals.

Out of nearly 450 000 of the overall population of the republic about 95 000 are the natives, called circassians (adyghe), who are aboregens of the North-West Caucasus. Their ancertors, meots, were first mentioned in writing back in the 5 th centure B.C. In the Russian chronicles they were called "kosogs". In 1864 Transkuban circassians were included into the administrative system of the dation of the Adyghe Autunomus region. On the 5 th of October 1900 it acquired the status of an independent subject within the Russian Federation as the Adyghe Republic

ADYGHEA LOOKS TO THE FUTURE

The Adyghe Republic is located on the picturesque northern slopes of the Caucasus ridge, which descends downward to the fertile Kuban plain. The republic stretches over a territory of 7,800 square kilometers and has a total population of 450,000. The Republic of Adyghea, one of the youngest in the Russian Federation, was formed in 1991. From 1922 it was part of different territorial formations in the south of Russia as an autonomous region. From 1937 until it became an independent member of the Russian Federation in 1991, Adyghea was part of the Krasnodar Territory. The formation of Adyghea's stotehood culminated with the adoption of its Constitution in March of 1995. Adyghea's current independence (and consequential higher status) does not entail the weakening of its ties, primarily economic ones, with Russia and its individual regions. Adyghea is a member of the Association of Socio-Economic Cooperation Between the Republics, Territories, and Regions of the Northern Caucasus. It maintains economic, social and cultural ties with Moscow, the Krasnodar Territory, the Kabardin-Balkar Republic, the Karachay-Cherkass Republic, Dagestan, Ingushetia and Northern Ossetia under individual agreements. Many of our republic's enterprises and organizations have established a foothold in world markets.

As is the case across Russia, the economy of Adyghea is going through difficult times. The well-being of our people is naturally affected, however reform is proceeding ahead. Taking into account the republic's specific features, measures to overcome the crisis are being instituted and programs for social protection of the poorest citizens are being implemented. The first positive results inspire hope. More specifically, in 1995 the volume of industrial production increased 1.5 percent compared to 1994 levels, and prices received (adjusted for inflation) grew 4.3 percent. The output of the republic's major industry - food and food processing-grew 12.5 percent over the same period. The fertile soil and favorable climatic conditions in the country define the multifaceted nature of agricultural production. There are 250,000 hectares of arable land, 90 collective farms and over 1,400 private farms in the republic. These cultivate over 100 agricultural cereals and crops. Grain, sunflowers, sugar beets, vegetables, meat and milk are the major agricultural products. The world's northernmost tea is grown here. The harvest yield of cereals, sunflowers and potatoes have increased. The movement for a higher agricultural culture is in revival. Adyghea ranks first in the Northern Caucasus and 17th in Russia in terms of capital investment in the non-production sphere, including communal construction. In the past three years, the number of water mains put into operation doubled, and the quantity of gas mains increased by 50 percent from 1989 to 1991. After achieving its status as a republic, Adyghea began to pay special attention to the development of its culture and educational system. The Adyghe Pedagogical Institute was reorganized into a state university. A new establishment of higher education-the Maikop State Technological Institute-and three more technical schools were opened. A symphonic orchestra, a chamber theater, and a professional orchestra of Russian folk instruments were formed. Our writers, painters and composers have enriched the national culture with new remarkable works. Science was promoted further as well. The republic's scholars joined the ranks of the Adyghea International Academy of Sciences and a number of Russian branch academies.

What is far and away most important, we have managed to preserve peace and tranquility in Adyghea during these difficult years. However, it can't be said that our republic doesn't have its problems. We are experiencing the same difficulties as other Russian regions. But I am confident that we will overcome all the difficulties soon. Adyghea will become a flourishing republic as a member of the multinational Russian Federation.

ASLAN DZHARIMOV, President of the Adyghe Republic

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